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GcMAF is a vitamin D-binding protein and is scientifically known as Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor. It is a protein found in different body fluids (serum, urine, breast milk, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva and seminal fluid) and organs (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, placenta, spleen, testes
Although its major function is binding, solubilization and transport of vitamin D and its metabolites, this glycoprotein exhibits numerous other important biological functions in the body.
GcMAF activates macrophage cells, or the cells responsible for fighting off infection, such as viruses and diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells and tumors release a protein called nagalase. When released, it prevents immune system cells from functioning properly by blocking GcMAF protein.
The articles herein (none of which have been retracted) describe current GcMAF research and discuss its multifunctional capacity - particularly, its ability to enhance cellular immunity in cultures and animal models.
Delanghe JR, Speeckaert R, Speeckaert MM. Behind the scenes of vitamin D binding protein: more than vitamin D binding. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol
Metab. 2015 Oct;29(5):773-86. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2015.06.006. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
Review. PubMed PMID: 26522461. (Abstract)
Hamilton G, Rath B, Klameth L, Hochmair MJ. Small cell lung cancer: Recruitment of macrophages by circulating tumor cells. Oncoimmunology. 2015 Oct 29;5(3):e1093277. eCollection 2016 Mar. PubMed PMID: 27141354; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4839345.
Ikeda T, Kasai M, Tatsukawa E, Kamitakahara M, Shibata Y, Yokoi T, Nemoto TK, Ioku K. A bone substitute with high affinity for vitamin D-binding protein–relationship with niche of osteoclasts. J Cell Mol Med. 2014 Jan;18(1):170-80. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12180. Epub 2013 Nov 28. PubMed PMID:
24286277; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3916128.
Inui T, Makita K, Miura H, Matsuda A, Kuchiike D, Kubo K, Mette M, Uto Y, Nishikata T, Hori H, Sakamoto N. Case report: A breast cancer patient treated with GcMAF, sonodynamic therapy and hormone therapy. Anticancer Res. 2014
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Meier, Ursula, Olav Gressner, Frank Lammert, and Axel M. Gressner. Gc-globulin: roles in response to injury. Clinical chemistry 52, no. 7 (2006): 1247-1253.
Nonaka K, Onizuka S, Ishibashi H, Uto Y, Hori H, Nakayama T, Matsuura N, Kanematsu T, Fujioka H. Vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor inhibits HCC in SCID mice. J Surg Res. 2012 Jan;172(1):116-22. doi:
10.1016/j.jss.2010.07.057. Epub 2010 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 20855083.
Rehder DS, Nelson RW, Borges CR. Glycosylation status of vitamin D binding protein in cancer patients. Protein Sci. 2009 Oct;18(10):2036-42. doi: 10.1002/pro.214. PubMed PMID: 19642159; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2786967.