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Biological Regulatory Effects Associated with Exposure to Radiofrequency/Microwave Frequencies & 5G

James Odell, OMD, ND, L.Ac.




Mobile communication has exponentially grown worldwide over the last few decades due to an advancing revolution in wireless technology. This revolution began with 1G- the first generation and has advanced now to 5G- the fifth generation. The dependency on wireless technologies has greatly increased public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. Currently, throughout many urban and rural areasa new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G pulsed wavelengths is being implemented. Research is surfacing that the addition of this added pulsed, high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome from both a physical and mental health perspective.




The following is a brief description of the advancement in mobile technology:


  • 1G - Analog- Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) was commercially introduced in the 1980's and operated with voice only at 800 MHz with a continuous wave signal.

  • 2G - Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), are variants of 2G systems, introduced in the 1990's, providing text messaging, multimedia messaging and internet access. These were used in the first digital cell phones. Frequencies are a combination of 850 and 1900 or 900 and 1800 MHz. (C.L. Russell Environmental Research 165 (2018) 484–495 486)

  • 3G - Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS)- Introduced in 1998 with broadband features providing data transfer, mobile internet and video calling. There are dozens of frequency bands available in the 800–900 MHz range and the 1700–2100 MHz range depending on the carrier.

  • 4G - Long Term Evolution (LTE) –Was released in 2008 with higher frequency broadband supporting faster web access, gaming, video conferencing, and HD Mobile TV. These frequencies are in the 700 MHz, 1700/2100 MHz and the 2500–2690 MHz range.

  • 5G- Device-to-Device Communication, Proposed for expansion of the Internet of Things. Uses wavelengths from 30 to 95 GHz and possibly up to 300 GHz.



The study of the biological effects associated with exposure to electromagnetic energy at radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW) frequencies is a mature scientific discipline. At present, there are well over 15,000 papers in the scientific literature that report the results of laboratory studies of exposed animals, humans, in vitro preparations, and other relevant studies. As can be imagined, the quality of the studies is uneven, ranging from poor and incomplete to excellent. Since many experimental maneuvers cannot be performed on human subjects, studies of animal subjects must often be substituted. Most studies that report biological effects have involved acute (minutes to hours) RF/MW exposures of animal subjects or in vitro preparations. Due to economic and technical concerns, only a few studies have investigated the consequences of long-term exposure of animals to controlled RF/MW fields.


Research and Controversy


The controversy over health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from commonly used wireless devices such as cell phones, cordless ph