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Thiomersal (C9H9HgNaO2S) in Vaccines

James Odell, OMD, ND, L.Ac.


Thimerosal (or Thiomersal) is a trade name for an organic mercurial compound (sodium ethyl-mercury (Hg) thiosalicylate) that is 49.55% mercury (Hg) by weight, which rapidly decomposes in aqueous saline solutions into ethyl-Hg hydroxide and ethyl-Hg chloride. It has been widely used since the 1930s as a preservative in certain vaccines cosmetics, tattoo inks, eye drops and contact lens solutions as well as a disinfectant (e.g. Merthiolate). Because of its application as a vaccine preservative, almost every human and animal (domestic and farmed) that has received Thimerosal-containing vaccines have been exposed to ethyl-mercury. Concerns have been voiced about its use in vaccines because ethyl-mercury is highly toxic to human cells and has been shown to be nephrotoxic (kidney) and neurotoxic (Geier, D 2015; Clarkson, T 1997). There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful.

Since there is insufficient data available regarding the toxic profile of ethylmercury, the FDA guidelines for methylmercury (MeHg) have been used to predict the potential toxicity of Thimerosal. This assumes that the toxicokinetic profile of the two organic mercury salts is similar. However, new studies prove that this is not the case. The main route of human exposure to MeHg is oral ingestion of seafood; for ethylmercury, human exposure is mainly by injection of thimerosal-containing vaccines. Compared with inorganic mercury salts, organic mercury (Thimerosal) is absorbed more effectively and thus has a greater toxic potential.


Specifically, Thimerosal is initially metabolized into ethyl-Hg compounds and thiosalicylate and rapidly binds onto thiol groups found on many proteins in human blood. It is then actively transported throughout the body and even across the blood-brain barrier into neuronal cells, where it significantly accumulates and may persist for months to years following exposure. There it damages neurons (brain cells), particularly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and thalamus. Although Thimerosal-containing vaccines have been banned in several countries, it continues to be added to some vaccines in the US and many vaccines in the developing world.


Thiomersal – Not an Effective Antimicrobial


Mercury compounds have been used as disinfectants or antimicrobials since bacteriology began. For a long period of time mercurial compounds, such as mercury chloride, were thought to be useful in the killing of bacteria and other microorganisms. However, as early as 1943, it was reported that plasma preserved with 1:10,000 Thimerosal was still contaminated with viable microorganisms, and it was concluded that Thimerosal cannot be considered the ideal preservative. Morton et al. found that Thimerosal is not highly germicidal and does not possess high antimicrobial value in the presence of serum and other protein mediums. They further stated that the loss of antibacterial activity of mercurials in the presence of serum proves their incompatibility with serum. Furthermore, these investigators described that Thimerosal was 35-times more toxic to embryonic tissue cells than it was to bacteria, as well as more toxic to leukocytes (white blood cells) than bacteria (Morton, H 1948).


More recently, the effectiveness of Thimerosal as a preservative in Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis (DTP) vaccine was evaluated by the US CDC. The CDC researchers reported that the choice and level of the preservative for inclusion in the DTP vaccine were limited because of possible harmful effects on the vaccine's antigenicity, plus the need to ensure the safety of the preservative. These investigators reported that Thimerosal used in the production of the DPT vaccine as an organic-Hg bacteriostatic agent was only weakly bactericidal. These investigators concluded that at currently used concentrations, Thimerosal is not an ideal preservative (Stetler, H 1985). Higher concentrations were not recommended because it might reduce vaccine potency or pose a danger to individuals receiving the vaccine.


Other investigators have observed that Thimerosal failed to meet European Pharmacopoeia antimicrobial effectiveness acceptance criteria as a preservative due to lack of growth inhibition of Thimerosal on Staphylococcus aureus in both single and multi-challenge evaluations (Khandke, L 2011). These researchers have compared and described the toxicity levels of commonly used preservatives in vaccines and found that other non-mercurial, less toxic preservatives, such as 2-Phenoxyethanol, provided a superior antimicrobial effectiveness over Thimerosal for vaccine formulations.


Despite the evidence that Thimerosal is a potent biologically toxin (Geier, D 2010), is not an effective antimicrobial, and that there are other less toxic and more effective preservatives available, Thimerosal continues to be used as a preservative in several vaccines to date throughout the world. This compound is a considerable source of mercury exposure for children (Kern, J 2011).


Current use of Thimerosal in Vaccines


In the 1990s, an increasing number of different vaccines containing Thimerosal were introduced in vaccination schedules around the world, and thus, the average cumulative exposure to Thimerosal in infants has increased in recent years. In 1997, Frank Pallone, a U.S. congressman from New Jersey attached a simple, 133-word amendment to a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reauthorization bill. This amendment gave the FDA 2 years to “compile a list of drugs and foods that contain intentionally introduced mercury compounds and [to] provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the mercury compounds in the list (21 USC 397 Section 413, 1997).” The bill — the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 — was signed into law on November 21, 1997. Neither the press nor the public took notice.


Eighteen months later, in May 1999, the FDA found that by 6 months of age, infants could receive as much as 75 μg of mercury from three doses of diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine, 75 μg from three doses of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and 37.5 μg from three doses of the hepatitis B vaccine — a total of 187.5 μg of mercury. Thus, cumulative doses of Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines can be as high as 187.5 μg Hg in the first six months of life (Bingham, M 2005). Although this degree of exposure in the first six months of life has been reduced in the US in recent years, it remains unchanged in developing countries.


In June 2000, a joint statement on Thimerosal in vaccines was prepared by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and the Public Health Service (PHS) in response to:


1) the progress in achieving the national goal declared in July 1999 to remove Thimerosal from vaccines in the recommended childhood vaccination schedule, and

2) results of recent studies that examined potential associations between exposure to mercury in thimerosal-containing vaccines and health effects.


In this statement, AAFP, AAP, ACIP, and PHS recommend “continuation of the current policy of moving to vaccines that are free of Thimerosal as a preservative. Until adequate supplies are available, use of vaccines that contain Thimerosal as a preservative is acceptable.”


However, starting in April of 2002, the US Center for Disease Control began to recommend that influenza vaccines are given to infants and children, who were 6-to-23 months of age, when the only approved influenza vaccine for that age group was preserved with Thimerosal (Sanofi Pasteur's Fluzone®). In addition, the US CDC recommended influenza vaccines be given to women who were pregnant in their second and third trimesters, when the only available influenza vaccines were also Thimerosal preserved. In addition, through 2010, the US CDC progressively widened the age range for annual influenza vaccine such that very young children were supposed to get two doses of influenza vaccine initially (at 6 and 7 months of age) and then receive an additional dose every year. All these vaccines administered contained Thimerosal. By this time, the US CDC had also discontinued the “second-and-third-trimester” constraint on giving influenza vaccines to pregnant women.


Thus, even though the US FDA eventually approved the reduced-Thimerosal and no-Thimerosal formulations of the tetanus-containing vaccines and some other vaccines, exposure to Thimerosal through vaccination continued. In 2013, more than half of all the influenza vaccines were still preserved with Thimerosal.


To date, most routinely recommended pediatric vaccines manufactured for the U.S. market contain either no Thimerosal or trace amounts. Even though there are other more effective, non-toxic preservatives that could replace Thiomersal, it is still added particularly to multidose injectable vaccines, such as influenzas (flu). The cost-effectiveness of adding Thimerosal to multidose vaccines still overrides safety concerns. Thimerosal is still a preservative in some of the other US FDA-approved vaccines. Outside North America and Europe, many vaccines still contain Thiomersal. Clearly, Thimerosal should be banned and eliminated as a vaccine preservative throughout the world.


Thimerosal is still added to and present in these vaccines: (Source: Institute for Vaccine Safety, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health)



The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, and there is a clear cause for concern. To date, there are over 150 studies that show harm from Thimerosal including increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and language and speech delay. The following selected articles describe Thimerosal as used in vaccines and its related biological toxic effects

Artices


Adams, J. B., M. Baral, E. Geis, J. Mitchell, J. Ingram, A. Hensley, I. Zappia et al. "The severity of autism is associated with toxic metal body burden and red blood cell glutathione levels." Journal of Toxicology 2009 (2009).

http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2009/532640.pdf


Abstract

This study investigated the relationship of children’s autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 3–8 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione.


Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos, Juliana Maria Oliveira Souza, Denise Grotto, Bruno Lemos Batista, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, and Fernando Barbosa Jr. "A systematic study of the disposition and metabolism of mercury species in mice after exposure to low levels of thimerosal (ethylmercury)." Environmental Research 134 (2014): 218-227.

https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/48859007/Identification_and_distribution_of_mercu20160915-15925-1wvmggx.pdf?1473951151=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DIdentification_and_distribution_of_mercu.pdf&Expires=1604530585&Signature=EoyMFFR4wtlMq08Lzb5VjsBPPMQTrrPMk7xj8-XHyDC1ra5QAeF0vDCxDl1J0igHGVNLR6e0BRvn4N2YcdK3cWhAKfFrE8TyhYeqEp7yYXfRiX25BhL492JO5e9MoVUCFD0E1OhTeXlWXJlLxkPhUg1z6CpwP--d9UlpRovmGqvqNZfD45BqJg6pBrspsW4SrHWkD20ACqNUbh0Ni5VHBzjga4zpUoPE~vctX2gcDRVnN-7OB3uKHCaGjWn3x3e3x6whQTAmaUl2h2YD5rEGOXK3XewCaPOswZd7weJpsdhMlZ8aO~I~079i2ToXJsQX2tz5AFuLQKNV31DUrXX7VQ__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA


Abstract

Thimerosal (TM) is an ethylmercury (etHg)-containing preservative used in some vaccines despite very limited knowledge on the kinetics and direct interaction/effects in mammals' tissues after exposure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of Hg species in mice in a time course analysis after intramuscular injection of TM, by estimating Hg half-lives in blood and tissues. Mice were exposed to one single intramuscular dose of 20 mg of Hg as TM. Blood, brain, heart, kidney and liver were collected at 0.5 hour (h), 1 h, 8 h, 16 h, 144 h, 720 h and 1980 h after TM exposure (n¼4). Hg species in animal tissues were identified and quantified by speciation analysis via liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS). It was found that the transport of etHg from muscle to tissues and its conversion to inorganic Hg (inoHg) occur rapidly. Moreover, the conversion extent is modulated in part by the partitioning between EtHg in plasma and in whole blood, since etHg is rapidly converted in red cells but not in a plasma compartment. Furthermore, the dealkylation mechanism in red cells appears to be mediated by the Fenton reaction (hydroxyl radical formation). Interestingly, after 0.5 h of TM exposure, the highest levels of both etHg and inoHg were found in kidneys (accounting for more than 70% of the total Hg in the animal body), whereas the brain contributed least to the Hg body burden (accounts for o1.0% of total body Hg). Thirty days after TM exposure, most Hg had been excreted while the liver presented the majority of the remaining Hg. Estimated half-lives (in days) were 8.8 for blood, 10.7 for brain, 7.8 for heart, 7.7 for liver and 45.2 for kidney. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that TM (etHg) kinetics more closely approximates Hg2þ than methylmercury (meHg) while the kidney must be considered a potential target for etHg toxicity.

Dorea, Jose. "Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants." Current Medicinal Chemistry 20, no. 32 (2013): 4060-4069.

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cmc/2013/00000020/00000032/art00006

Abstract

This review explores the different aspects of constitutional factors in early life that modulate toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of low-dose mercury resulting from acute ethylmercury (etHg) exposure in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV). Major databases were searched for human and experimental studies that addressed issues related to early life exposure to TCV. It can be concluded that: a) mercury load in fetuses, neonates, and infants resulting from TCVs remains in blood of neonates and infants at sufficient concentration and for enough time to penetrate the brain and to exert a neurologic impact and a probable influence on neurodevelopment of susceptible infants; b) etHg metabolism related to neurodevelopmental delays has been demonstrated experimentally and observed in population studies; c) unlike chronic Hg exposure during pregnancy, neurodevelopmental effects caused by acute (repeated/cumulative) early life exposure to TCV-etHg remain unrecognized; and d) the uncertainty surrounding low-dose toxicity of etHg is challenging but recent evidence indicates that avoiding cumulative insults by alkyl-mercury forms (which include Thimerosal) is warranted. It is important to a) maintain trust in vaccines while reinforcing current public health policies to abate mercury exposure in infancy; b) generally support WHO policies that recommend vaccination to prevent and control existing and impending infectious diseases; and c) not confuse the ‘need’ to use a specific ‘product’ (TCV) by accepting as ‘innocuous’ (or without consequences) the presence of a proven ‘toxic alkyl-mercury’ (etHg) at levels that have not been proven to be toxicologically safe.

Dórea, José G. "Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines." Neurochemical research 36, no. 6 (2011): 927-938.

https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.668.6252&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Abstract

There is a need to interpret neurotoxic studies to help deal with uncertainties surrounding pregnant mothers, newborns and young children who must receive repeated doses of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). This review integrates information derived from emerging experimental studies (in vitro and in vivo) of low-dose Thimerosal (sodium ethyl mercury thiosalicylate). Major databases (PubMed and Web-of-science) were searched for in vitro and in vivo experimental studies that addressed the effects of low-dose Thimerosal (or ethylmercury) on neural tissues and animal behaviour. Information extracted from studies indicates that: (a) activity of low doses of Thimerosal against isolated human and animal brain cells was found in all studies and is consistent with Hg neurotoxicity; (b) the neurotoxic effect of ethylmercury has not been studied with co-occurring adjuvant-Al in TCVs; (c) animal studies have shown that exposure to Thimerosal-Hg can lead to accumulation of inorganic Hg in brain, and that (d) doses relevant to TCV exposure possess the potential to affect human neuro-development. Thimerosal at concentrations relevant for infants’ exposure (in vaccines) is toxic to cultured human-brain cells and to laboratory animals. The persisting use of TCV (in developing countries) is counterintuitive to global efforts to lower Hg exposure and to ban Hg in medical products; its continued use in TCV requires evaluation of a sufficiently nontoxic level of ethylmercury compatible with repeated exposure (co-occurring with adjuvant-Al) during early life.


Dórea, José G. "Making sense of epidemiological studies of young children exposed to thimerosal in vaccines." Clinica Chimica Acta 411, no. 21-22 (2010): 1580-1586.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0009898110004675


Abstract

Objective

To compare epidemiological studies dealing with neurological issues (compatible with Hg toxicity) linked to exposing newborns and infants to intramuscular doses of preservative-Hg resulting from vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV).

Methods

Major databases were searched for studies that addressed neurodevelopment outcomes other than autism. Eight studies were identified and compared.

Results

Information extracted from the studies done in the USA, the UK, and Italy is important in understanding the complex interplay of variables but insufficient to establish non-toxicity for infants and young children still receiving TCV: a) there is ambiguity in some studies reporting neurodevelopment outcomes that seem to depend on confounding variables; b) the risk of neurotoxicity due to low doses of thimerosal is plausible at least for susceptible infants; c) there is a need to address these issues in less developed countries still using TCV in pregnant mothers, newborns, and young children.

Conclusions

Since the use of TCV is still inevitable in many countries, this increases the need to protect vulnerable infants and promote actions that strengthen neurodevelopment. Developing countries should intensify campaigns that include breastfeeding among efforts to help prime the central nervous system to tolerate exposure to neurotoxic substances, especially thimerosal-Hg.



Fagan, D. G., J. S. Pritchard, Thomas W. Clarkson, and M. R. Greenwood. "Organ mercury levels in infants with omphaloceles treated with organic mercurial antiseptic." Archives of Disease in Childhood 52, no. 12 (1977): 962-964.

https://adc.bmj.com/content/archdischild/52/12/962.full.pdf

Abstract

Samples of fresh and fixed tissues from infants with exomphalos treated by thiomersal application were analyzed for mercury content. The results showed that thiomersal can induce blood and organ levels of organic mercury which are well in excess of the minimum toxic level in adults and fetuses. The analysis of fresh and fixed tissues must be carefully controlled against normal tissues in order to interpret mercury levels accurately.


Gallagher, Carolyn M., and Melody S. Goodman. "Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997–2002." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 73, no. 24 (2010): 1665-1677.

http://vaccinesafetycommission.org/pdfs/26-2010-Hep-B-Autism.pdf


Abstract

Universal hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for U.S. newborns in 1991; however, safety findings are mixed. The association between hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and parental report of autism diagnosis was determined. This cross-sectional study used weighted probability samples obtained from National Health Interview Survey 1997–2002 data sets. Vaccination status was determined from the vaccination record. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds for autism diagnosis associated with neonatal hepatitis B vaccination among boys age 3–17 years, born before 1999, adjusted for race, maternal education, and two-parent household. Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Non-Hispanic white boys were 64% less likely to have autism diagnosis relative to nonwhite boys. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period. Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk.


Geier, Mark R., and David A. Geier. "Neurodevelopmental disorders after thimerosal-containing vaccines: a brief communication." Experimental biology and medicine 228, no. 6 (2003): 660-664.

http://schizophreniahelpforyou.com/EXPERT%20PAPER%20-%20Geier%20-%20Internet%20File.pdf


Abstract

We were initially highly skeptical that differences in the concentrations of thimerosal in vaccines would have any effect on the incidence rate of neurodevelopmental disorders after childhood immunization. This study presents the first epidemiologic evidence, based upon tens of millions of doses of vaccine administered in the United States, that associates increasing thimerosal from vaccines with neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, an analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk [RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR = 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. The male/female ratio indicated that autism (17) and speech disorders (2.3) were reported more in males than females after thimerosal containing DTaP vaccines, whereas mental retardation (1.2) was more evenly reported among male and female vaccine recipients. Controls were employed to determine if biases were present in the data, but none were found. It was determined that overall adverse reactions were reported in similar-aged populations after thimerosal-containing DTaP (2.4 ± 3.2 years old) and thimerosal-free DTaP (2.1 ± 2.8 years old) vaccinations. Acute control adverse reactions such as deaths (RR = 1.0), vasculitis (RR = 1.2), seizures (RR = 1.6), ED visits (RR = 1.4), total adverse reactions (RR = 1.4), and gastroenteritis (RR = 1.1) were reported similarly after thimerosal containing and thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. An association between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal containing DTaP vaccines was found, but additional studies should be conducted to confirm and extend this study.


Geier, D. A., P. G. King, L. K. Sykes, and M. R. Geier. "A comprehensive review of mercury provoked autism." Indian Journal of Medical Research 128, no. 4 (2008): 383.

http://w.toxcenter.org/artikel/Mercury-provoked-autism-review-mas.pdf


Abstract

Emerging evidence supports the theory that some autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from a combination of genetic/biochemical susceptibility, specifically a reduced ability to excrete mercury (Hg), and exposure to Hg at critical developmental periods. Elemental/inorganic Hg is released into the air/water where it becomes methylated and accumulates in animal tissues. The US population is primarily exposed to methyl-Hg by fish consumption. In addition, many pharmaceuticals have been, and some continue to be, a ubiquitous source of danger because they contain mercurials. Mercurials may be found in drugs for the eye, ear, nose, throat, and skin; in bleaching creams; as preservatives in cosmetics, tooth pastes, lens solutions, vaccines, allergy test and immunotherapy solutions; in antiseptics, disinfectants, and contraceptives; in fungicides and herbicides; in dental fillings and thermometers; and many other products. Hg has been found to cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioural dysfunctions similar to traits defining/associated with ASDs, and that these similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry. Furthermore, a review of molecular mechanisms indicates that Hg exposure can induce death, disorganization and/or damage to selected neurons in the brain similar to that seen in recent ASD brain pathology studies, and this alteration may likely produce the symptoms by which ASDs are diagnosed. Finally, a review of treatments suggests that ASD patients who undergo protocols to reduce Hg and/or its effects show significant clinical improvements in some cases. In conclusion, the overwhelming preponderance of the evidence favours acceptance that Hg exposure is capable of causing some ASDs


Geier, David A., Paul G. King, Brian S. Hooker, José G. Dórea, Janet K. Kern, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier. "Thimerosal: clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies." Clinica Chimica Acta 444 (2015): 212-220

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009898115001023


Conclusion

The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines.

Geier, David A., Sarah K. Jordan, and Mark R. Geier. "The relative toxicity of compounds used as preservatives in vaccines and biologics." Medical Science Monitor 16, no. 5 (2010): SR21-SR27.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Geier/publication/43348711_The_relative_toxicity_of_compounds_used_as_preservatives_in_vaccines_and_biologics/links/02bfe50ece52caa8b1000000.pdf


Abstract

We were initially highly skeptical that differences in the concentrations of thimerosal in vaccines would have any effect on the incidence rate of neurodevelopmental disorders after childhood immunization. This study presents the first epidemiologic evidence, based upon tens of millions of doses of vaccine administered in the United States, that associates increasing thimerosal from vaccines with neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, an analysis of the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) database showed statistical increases in the incidence rate of autism (relative risk [RR] = 6.0), mental retardation (RR = 6.1), and speech disorders (RR = 2.2) after thimerosal-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines in comparison with thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. The male/female ratio indicated that autism (17) and speech disorders (2.3) were reported more in males than females after thimerosal containing DTaP vaccines, whereas mental retardation (1.2) was more evenly reported among male and female vaccine recipients. Controls were employed to determine if biases were present in the data, but none were found. It was determined that overall adverse reactions were reported in similar-aged populations after thimerosal-containing DTaP (2.4 ± 3.2 years old) and thimerosal-free DTaP (2.1 ± 2.8 years old) vaccinations. Acute control adverse reactions such as deaths (RR = 1.0), vasculitis (RR = 1.2), seizures (RR = 1.6), ED visits (RR = 1.4), total adverse reactions (RR = 1.4), and gastroenteritis (RR = 1.1) were reported similarly after thimerosal containing and thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. An association between neurodevelopmental disorders and thimerosal containing DTaP vaccines was found, but additional studies should be conducted to confirm and extend this study.



Geier, David A., Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier. "A case-control study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing Haemophilus influenzae Type b vaccine administration and the risk for a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosis in the United States." Biological trace element research 163, no. 1-2 (2015): 28-38.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12011-014-0169-3


Abstract

Thimerosal is an organic mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55 % Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative. A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated automated medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing vaccines administered at specific times within the first 15 months of life among subjects diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (n = 534) in comparison to controls. The generally accepted biologically non-plausible linkage between Thimerosal exposure and subsequent diagnosis of febrile seizure (n = 5886) was examined as a control outcome. Cases diagnosed with PDD received significantly more organic Hg within the first 6 months of life (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, p < 0.001) and first 15 months of life (OR = 3.94, p < 0.0001) than controls, whereas cases diagnosed with febrile seizure were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic Hg. On a per microgram of organic Hg basis, cases diagnosed with a PDD in comparison to controls were at significantly greater odds (OR = 1.0197, p < 0.0001) of receiving increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life, whereas cases diagnosed febrile seizure were no more likely than controls (OR = 0.999, p > 0.20) to have received increasing organic Hg exposure within the first 15 months of life. Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence of a significant relationship between increasing organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and the subsequent risk of PDD diagnosis in males and females.





Geier, David A., Paul G. King, Brian S. Hooker, José G. Dórea, Janet K. Kern, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier. "Thimerosal: clinical, epidemiologic and biochemical studies." Clinica Chimica Acta 444 (2015): 212-220.


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009898115001023

Abstract - Conclusion

The culmination of the research that examines the effects of Thimerosal in humans indicates that it is a poison at minute levels with a plethora of deleterious consequences, even at the levels currently administered in vaccines.



Geier, David A., and Mark R. Geier. "A meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders following vaccines administered from 1994 through 2000 in the United States." Neuroendocrinology Letters 27, no. 4 (2006): 401-413.


https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Geier/publication/6976264_A_meta-analysis_epidemiological_assessment_of_neurodevelopmental_disorders_following_vaccines_administered_from_1994_through_2000_in_the_United_States/links/0912f50d1450b33df0000000/A-meta-analysis-epidemiological-assessment-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-following-vaccines-administered-from-1994-through-2000-in-the-United-States.pdf


Abstract

BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an ethylmercury-containing compound (49.6% mercury by weight) used as at the preservative level in vaccines (0.005% to 0.01%). METHODS: Statistical modeling in a meta-analysis epidemiological assessment of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for neurodevelopment disorders (NDs) reported following Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis (DTP) vaccines in comparison to Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole-cell-Pertussis-Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (DTPH) vaccines (administered: 1994–1997) and following Thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP), vaccines in comparison to Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines (administered: 1997–2000), was undertaken. RESULTS: Significantly increased adjusted (sex, age, vaccine type, vaccine manufacturer) risks of autism, speech disorders, mental retardation, personality disorders, thinking abnormalities, ataxia, and NDs in general, with minimal systematic error or confounding, were associated with TCV exposure. CONCLUSION: It is clear from the results of the present epidemiological study and other recently published data associating mercury exposure with childhood NDs, additional ND research should be undertaken in the context of evaluating mercury-associated exposures, especially from Thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Geier, David A., Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier. "The risk of neurodevelopmental disorders following a Thimerosal-preserved DTaP formulation in comparison to its Thimerosal-reduced formulation in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)." J Biochem Pharmacol Res 2, no. 2 (2014): 64-73.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Geier/publication/261474301_The_risk_of_neurodevelopmental_disorders_following_a_Thimerosal-preserved_DTaP_formulation_in_comparison_to_its_Thimerosal-reduced_formulation_in_the_vaccine_adverse_event_reporting_system_VAERS/links/0deec535678a12f9ff000000.pdf


Abstract

Mercury (Hg) exposure in human infants and fetuses has long been known to be significantly associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Thimerosal (49.55% Hg by weight) is an ethyl-Hg containing compound added to many childhood vaccines as a preservative. A hypothesis testing case-control study was undertaken in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (updated through September 2013) by examining 5,591 adverse event reports entered following Thimerosal-preserved Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) (TripediaTM, Sanofi) administered from 1997-1999 (exposed) and following Thimerosal-reduced DTaP (TripediaTM, Sanofi) administered from 2004-2006 (unexposed). Cases were defined as individuals with adverse event reports with the outcomes of autism, speech disorder, mental retardation, or ND (at least of one these aforementioned specific outcomes being mentioned in the adverse event report). Controls were defined as individuals with adverse event reports without any mention of the specific case outcomes examined. Cases reported with the outcomes of autism (odds ratio = 7.67, p < 0.0001), speech disorders (odds ratio = 3.49, p < 0.02), mental retardation (odds ratio = 8.73, p < 0.0005), or ND (odds ratio = 4.82, p < 0.0001) were significantly more likely than controls to have received Thimerosalpreserved DTaP vaccine (exposed) in comparison to Thimerosal-reduced DTaP vaccine (unexposed). Though routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with certain infectious diseases, this study supports a significant relationship between increased organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-preserved childhood vaccines and the child's subsequent risk of a ND diagnosis.


Geier, David A., Brian S. Hooker, Janet K. Kern, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier. "A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States." Translational Neurodegeneration 2, no. 1 (2013): 25.

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/9/9156/htm


Abstract

A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991–2000) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. ND cases were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), specific developmental delay, tic disorder or hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood. In addition, putative non-thimerosal-related outcomes of febrile seizure, failure to thrive and cerebral degenerations were examined. The cumulative total dose of Hg exposure from thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HBV) administered within the first six months of life was calculated. On a per microgram of organic-Hg basis, PDD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.054), specific developmental delay (OR = 1.035), tic disorder (OR = 1.034) and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (OR = 1.05) cases were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure. By contrast, none of the non-thimerosal related outcomes were significantly more likely than the controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure. Routine childhood vaccination may be an important public health tool to reduce infectious disease-associated morbidity/mortality, but the present study significantly associates organic-Hg exposure from T-HBV with an increased risk of an ND diagnosis.



Geier, David A., Lisa K. Sykes, and Mark R. Geier. "A review of Thimerosal (Merthiolate) and its ethylmercury breakdown product: specific historical considerations regarding safety and effectiveness." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 10, no. 8 (2007): 575-596.

http://ww.w.toxcenter.org/artikel/Thiomersal-schweres-Hirngift-Literaturstudie.pdf


Abstract

Thimerosal (Merthiolate) is an ethylmercury-containing pharmaceutical compound that is 49.55% mercury and that was developed in 1927. Thimerosal has been marketed as an antimicrobial agent in a range of products, including topical antiseptic solutions and antiseptic ointments for treating cuts, nasal sprays, eye solutions, vaginal spermicides, diaper rash treatments, and perhaps most importantly as a preservative in vaccines and other injectable biological products, including Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations, despite evidence, dating to the early 1930s, indicating Thimerosal to be potentially hazardous to humans and ineffective as an antimicrobial agent. Despite this, Thimerosal was not scrutinized as part of U.S. pharmaceutical products until the 1980s, when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration finally recognized its demonstrated ineffectiveness and toxicity in topical pharmaceutical products, and began to eliminate it from these. Ironically, while Thimero