Water Properties and its Biology

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“Liquid water is a highly versatile material. Although it is formed from the tiniest of molecules, it can shape and control biomolecules. The hydrogen-bonding properties of water are crucial to this versatility, as they allow water to execute an intricate three-dimensional ‘ballet’, exchanging partners while retaining complex order and enduring effects. Water can generate small active clusters and macroscopic assemblies, which can both transmit information on different scales.” – Professor Martin Chaplin

Water has long been known to be the essential matrix of life. In recent times, a huge number of findings have been collected regarding the role of water in living dynamics. Water can change its molecular structure and recently, a surge of interest has arisen concerning the property of water in becoming “structured” which allows the emergence of complex biodynamics possible. Structured water is also known as coherent or exclusion zone (EZ) water. When most people think of water, they think of liquid water coming from their tap. Coherent or EZ water is vastly different from municipal water. It is water that is structured to be supremely cooperative in a living biologic system.  It allows water to have local interactions with other molecules of water or something else so that the local interactions can have global effects, and this coherence means it is also bidirectional.  That means the global effects can affect local interactions.  Coherent water is best thought of as the whole of its actions being much greater than the sum of its molecular parts.  This is how life uses water.


Thus, when electrons are added to surfaces, they become more hydrophilic, and they form an exclusion zone (EZ) in water. They are called exclusion zone because they exclude everything larger than the size of light hydrogen. This EZ has a large net negative charge and becomes a battery in water for electromagnetic radiations from the sun.  Close to 65 years ago, the father of biochemistry, Hungarian-born U.S. scientist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi had already highlighted the importance of water for life. He proposed that EZ water existing close to surfaces, such as found in cell membranes, can induce a very long-lasting electronic excitation via a resonant transfer of the different molecular species present in these ‘liquid crystals’, thereby activating them and enabling their mutual attraction for reactions to take place. The properties of EZ water have been widely investigated by numerous researchers: Martin Chaplin, Masaru Emoto, Konstantin Korotkov, Gerald Pollack, Vladimir Voeikov, among numerous others.


The properties of liquid water are quite different from most other liquids, with many anomalies and unusual traits being identified.  These properties are due partially to water being a small and highly polar molecule, but mainly due to water’s capacity to form ordered tetrahedrally-placed cooperative intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Its solid form is less dense than its liquid form, which is why ice floats. Its peculiar density profile prevents oceans and lakes from freezing solid to the bottom, allowing fish to survive the winter. It can absorb a large amount of heat, which is carried long distances by ocean currents and has a profound impact on climate. Water expands when cooled. Water is an excellent solvent due to its polarity, high dielectric constant, and small size, particularly for polar and ionic compounds and salts. Its solvation properties are so impressive that it is difficult to obtain truly pure water.

Structured or EZ Water


In liquid water, clusters of water molecules are continually forming and dissociating. A typical hydrogen bond between two water molecules lasts just a picosecond or so, followed by a period much shorter than this when the two water molecules are not hydrogen-bonded to each other. Hydrogen bonding in most water is random. There is no long-term pattern to the way the water molecules become interconnected. However, many natural forces can influence the degree and stability of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding shows strong cooperativity as a water molecule that accepts a hydrogen bond is more able to donate one to another water molecule. Liquid water contains by far the densest hydrogen bonding of any solvent with almost as many hydrogen bonds as there are covalent bonds. These hydrogen bonds can rapidly rearrange in response to changing conditions and environments (e.g., the presence of solutes). The strength and directionality of the bonding increase cooperatively with the extent of the formed cluster. Thus, water is well-structured and contains clusters of water molecules held by strong hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonding in water, together with its tendency to form open tetrahedral networks at low temperatures, gives rise to its characteristic properties, which differ from those of other liquids.


In nature, there is a vortex process that occurs naturally as water runs downhill over stones and boulders, drops into ravines and down waterfalls, or collides with other currents, streams, and rivers. This vortex naturally gives structure to the hydrogen bonds of water. The vibrational movement of water as it bumps over boulders and waterfalls encourages the water molecule groups to break apart into small, highly active clusters, creating health-giving water. Within this vortex process, some water molecules dissociate into hydrogen and oxygen. This newly created oxygen mixes uniformly with any oxygen already dissolved in the water. As oxygen itself is a hydrophilic element, hexagonal sheets of structured water grow outward from the oxygen, layer by layer. Since vortexing (a kind of mechanical perturbation or agitation) is an immensely powerful way of increasing structure, there are devices on the market which vortex water. Vortexed water is "soft," has low surface tension, and exhibits small clusters of hydrogen-oxygen molecules.


It has also been demonstrated that water is capable of “remembering” what it comes into contact with and holds that information in an ‘electromagnetic imprint’. The structured crystalline quality of water allows it to store information, much like a computer chip. Dr. Masaru Emoto has extensively studied, photographed, and written numerous papers and books on the memory properties of water. Masaru Emoto’s experiments suggest that water does not just have memory, but its structure could be affected by the emotions of people. According to Dr. Emoto, water molecules restructure their position when they interact with positive or negative emotions. The concept of the memory of water goes back to 1988 when the late Professor Jacques Benveniste published, in the international scientific journal Nature, claims that extremely high ‘ultramolecular’ dilutions of an antibody had effects in the human basophil degranulation test, a laboratory model of an immune response.
In other words, the water diluent ‘remembered’ the antibody long after it was gone. Here is the takeaway: Temperature, pressure, and EMF resonant energies from the environment can connect to hydrogen in water via resonance. The following are selected articles that discuss the unique, recently discovered properties of water that allow for better cellular hydration, information transport, detoxification, and biological regulation.

General Information

Arani, Raffaella, Ivan Bono, Emilio Del Giudice, and Giuliano Preparata. "QED coherence and the thermodynamics of water;International Journal of Modern Physics
B 9, no. 15 (1995): 1813-1841.



It is shown that when the density becomes larger than a critical density an ensemble of water molecules evolves towards a coherent ground state, where molecules oscillate in phase with the electromagnetic field. At each temperature, liquid water is found to consist of a coherent phase of molecules in such a ground state and of a normal phase, whose population is determined by thermal excitations. The observed thermodynamical quantities as well as their well-known anomalous behaviors are satisfactorily described by our theory.

Batmanghelidj, Fereydoon, and Michael J. Page. Your body's many cries for water. Tantor Audio, 2012.

Ben-Naim, Arieh. "Water and aqueous solutions." In Statistical Thermodynamics for Chemists and Biochemists, pp. 459-559. Springer, Boston, MA, 1992.

Brizhik, Larissa S., Emilio Del Giudice, Alberto Tedeschi, and Vladimir L. Voeikov. "The role of water in the information exchange between the components of an ecosystem." Ecological Modelling 222, no. 16 (2011): 2869-2877.

Chaplin, Martin. "Do we underestimate the importance of water in cell biology?." Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 7, no. 11 (2006): 861-866.

Chaplin, Martin F. "Water: its importance to life." Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 29, no. 2 (2001): 54-59.

Chaplin, M. F. "A proposal for the structuring of water." Biophys. Chem. 83, 211–221 (2000).


In spite of much work, many of the properties of water remain puzzling. A fluctuating network of water molecules, with localised icosahedral symmetry, is proposed to exist derived from clusters containing, if complete, 280 fully hydrogen-bonded molecules. These are formed by the regular arrangement of identical units of 14 water molecules that can tessellate locally, by changing centres, in three-dimensions and interconvert between lower and higher density forms. The structure allows explanation of many of the anomalous properties of water including its temperature]density and pressure]viscosity behaviour, the radial distribution pattern, the presence of both pentamers and hexamers, the change in properties and ‘two-state’ model on supercooling and the solvation properties of ions, hydrophobic molecules, carbohydrates and macromolecules. The model described here offers a structure on to which large molecules can be mapped in order to offer insights into their interactions.


Davenas, Elisabeth, Francis Beauvais, Judith Amara, Menahem Oberbaum, Boaz Robinzon, A. Miadonnai, Alberto Tedeschi et al. "Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE." Nature 333, no. 6176 (1988): 816-818.


Emoto, Masaru. "The hidden messages in water". Simon and Schuster, 2011.

Emoto, Masaru. "The secret life of water." Simon and Schuster, 2011.

Emoto, Masaru. "The miracle of water." Simon and Schuster, 2010.

Emoto, Masaru. "The true power of water:" Healing and discovering ourselves. Simon and Schuster, 2005.


Emoto, Masaru. "Healing with water." The journal of alternative & complementary Medicine 10, no. 1 (2004): 19-21.


Emoto, Masaru, and Urs Thoenen. "Die Botschaft des Wassers". Koha-Verlag, 2002.


Emoto, Masaru. "Wasserkristalle." Tokio 159 (2001): 29-35.

Emoto, Masaru, and Jürgen Fliege. "Die Heilkraft des Wassers". Koha, 2004.



Emoto, Masaru. Water crystal healing: "Music and images to restore your well-being." Simon and Schuster, 2012.


Higgins, Michael J., Martin Polcik, Takeshi Fukuma, John E. Sader, Yoshikazu Nakayama, and Suzanne P. Jarvis. "Structured water layers adjacent to biological membranes." Biophysical journal 91, no. 7 (2006): 2532-2542.



Water amid the restricted space of crowded biological macromolecules and at membrane interfaces is essential for cell function, though the structure and function of this “biological water” itself remains poorly defined. The force required to remove strongly bound water is referred to as the hydration force and due to its widespread importance, it has been studied in numerous systems. Here, by using a highly sensitive dynamic atomic force microscope technique in conjunction with a carbon nanotube probe, we reveal a hydration force with an oscillatory profile that reflects the removal of up to five structured water layers from between the probe and biological membrane surface. Further, we find that the hydration force can be modified by changing the membrane fluidity. For 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel (Lβ) phase bilayers, each oscillation in the force profile indicates the force required to displace a single layer of water molecules from between the probe and bilayer. In contrast, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine fluid (Lα) phase bilayers at 60°C and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine fluid (Lα) phase bilayers at 24°C seriously disrupt the molecular ordering of the water and result predominantly in a monotonic force profile.


Eisenberg, David, Walter Kauzmann, and Walter Kauzmann. "The structure and properties of water." Oxford University Press on Demand, 2005.


Evans, Myron W., G. Wilse Robinson, Surjit Singh, and Sheng-bai Zhu. "Water in biology, chemistry, and physics: experimental overviews and computational methodologies." Vol. 9. World Scientific, 1996.


Fukuma, Takeshi, Michael J. Higgins, and Suzanne P. Jarvis. "Direct imaging of individual intrinsic hydration layers on lipid bilayers at Ångstrom resolution." Biophysical journal 92, no. 10 (2007): 3603-3609.



The interactions between water and biological molecules have the potential to influence the structure, dynamics, and function of biological systems, hence the importance of revealing the nature of these interactions in relation to the local biochemical environment. We have investigated the structuring of water at the interface of supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine 

bilayers in the gel phase in phosphate buffer solution using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM). We present experimental results supporting the existence of intrinsic (i.e., surface-induced) hydration layers adjacent to the bilayer. The force versus distance curves measured between the bilayer and the AFM tip show oscillatory force profiles with a peak spacing of 0.28 nm, indicative of the existence of up to two hydration layers next to the membrane surface. These oscillatory force profiles reveal the molecular-scale origin of the hydration force that has been observed between two opposing lipid bilayers. Furthermore, FM-AFM imaging at the water/lipid interface visualizes individual hydration layers in three dimensions, with molecular-scale corrugations corresponding to the lipid headgroups. The results demonstrate that the intrinsic hydration layers are stable enough to present multiple energy barriers to approaching nanoscale objects, such as proteins and solvated ions, and are expected to affect membrane permeability and transport.


Giudice, Emilio Del, and Alberto Tedeschi. "Water and autocatalysis in living matter." Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 28, no. 1 (2009): 46-52.


Water plays a fundamental role in living organisms. Liquid water includes coherence domains (CD) where all molecules oscillate in unison in tune with a self-trapped electromagnetic field at a well-defined frequency. The coherent oscillations produce an ensemble of quasi-free electrons, able to collect noise energy from the environment and transform it into high-grade coherent energy in the form of electron vortices. This high-grade energy may activate the biomolecules resonating with the water CD. In this way, water CDs become dissipative structures in the sense of Prigogine and Froehlich, such that they are able to oscillate and coherence among them can be established. Thus, autocatalysis in living matter is made possible.


Giudice, Emilio Del, Paola Rosa Spinetti, and Alberto Tedeschi. "Water dynamics at the root of metamorphosis in living organisms." Water 2, no. 3 (2010): 566-586.



Liquid water has been recognized long ago to be the matrix of many processes, including life and rock dynamics. Interactions among biomolecules occur very differently in a non-aqueous system and are unable to produce life. This ability to make living processes possible implies a very peculiar structure of liquid water. According to modern Quantum Field Theory (QFT), a complementary principle (in the sense of Niels Bohr) holds between the number N of field quanta (including the matter field whose quanta are just the atoms/molecules) and the phase. This means that when we focus on the atomic structure of matter it loses its coherence properties and, vice versa, when we examine the phase dynamics of the system its atomic structure becomes undefined. Superfluid liquid Helium is the first example of this peculiar quantum dynamics. In the present paper we show how consideration of the phase dynamics of liquid water makes the understanding of its peculiar role in the onset of self-organization in living organisms and in ecosystems possible.

Keutsch, Frank N., and Richard J. Saykally. "Water clusters: Untangling the mysteries of the liquid, one molecule at a time." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, no. 19 (2001): 10533-10540.



Extensive terahertz laser vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra and mid-IR laser spectra have been compiled for several isotopomers of small (dimer through hexamer) water clusters. These data, in conjunction with new theoretical advances, quantify the structures, force fields, dipole moments, and hydrogen bond rearrangement dynamics in these clusters. This new information permits us to systematically untangle the intricacies associated with cooperative hydrogen bonding and promises to lead to a more complete molecular description of the liquid and solid phases of water, including an accurate universal force field.

Korotkov, Konstantin. "Study of structured water and its biological effects." (2019).



Background: The study of water structuring under the influence of different devices and biological effects of such waters requires the development of different methods.

Methods: The Dynamic Electrophotonic Imaging (EPI) Analysis based on Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) method was used to study the structured water, as well as its influence to biological substances: food samples and sprouts. 

Results: Statistically significant difference between control and experimental samples were demonstrated on three brands of waters, but no effect on the fourth water brand. For samples of food products: apple, banana, carrot, celery, potato, cheese and sausage statistically significant difference between control and experimental samples was found. Observation of the germination rate of rye and oat seeds showed that the appearance of the first root (seed pecking) occurred 1 day earlier in the experiment than in the control. In the experiment, an average of 81.5% to 57% of seeds grew, while in the control 47.8%. In the experiment there were 63.2% to 54.0% of the right seedlings, while in the control 47.8%. The development of potato roots in the experimental variants was about 2 times higher than the roots in the control variants. 

Conclusions: Structuring of water under the influence of Amezcua BioDisc3 by Qnet had a significant effect both on EPI/GDV parameters of water and different biological substances influenced by this disc. This opens up wide prospects for the practical implementation of the EPI/GDV method.

Korotkov, K. G., O. A. Churganov, and E. A. Gavrilova. "Influence of drinking structured water to human psychophysiology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng 6, no. 4 (2019): 171-177.



Aim: The aim of the study was to study the impact of the consumption of structured water on the human body in normal environmental conditions for one month. 

Materials and methods: The following techniques have been used in the study: study of body composition by bioelectric impedance; clinical and biochemical blood analysis; psychological testing; heart rate variability (HRV) method; Bio-Well GDV method. This study was an open, randomized, comparative study in which the main performance indicators were evaluated in 15 subjects - an experimental group using structured water - 1 liter per day for a month, compared to 15 subjects in the control group (using unstructured water of the same brand for a month).  Comparative tests were carried out initially and after 1 month.

Results: Both groups demonstrated an increase in the average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, which indicated an improvement in water-salt metabolism, which was due to the regular water consumption regardless of its structure. The experimental group revealed a significant reduction in total body weight due to reduction of fat mass; a significant decrease in creatinine levels, as well as an increase in glomerular filtration of the kidneys, which reflects the improvement of renal excretory function and a decrease in the level of endogenous intoxication of the body; the growth of HRV and Bio-Well GDV parameters reflecting parasympathetic activity and variability of heart rhythm and the decrease of parameters which reflect the degree of sympathetic regulation and centralization of heart rhythm. No such changes were observed in the control group, but there was a reliable negative dynamics of parameters for most of participants.


Conclusions: From the analysis of experimental data was concluded that structured water consumed 1 liter per day for a month contributes to the reduction of body fat mass, improvement of water-salt metabolism, improvement of kidney excretory function, reduction of endogenous intoxication of the body, increase of adaptive and stress-response and reserve capacity of the body even in adverse seasonal, climatic and epidemiological period. In contrast, in the control group there was a reliable negative dynamic of parameters for most of participants. The experiment was conducted during the unfavorable seasonal, climatic and epidemiological period - the period of seasonal immunodeficiency, depression and reduced efficiency. At the same time, this investigation should be considered as a pilot study, as the sample size (n=30) is too small to draw any decisive conclusions. Since the study includes different age groups, sexes, and profession with that small sample size, it becomes even more complicated to draw any conclusions. We hope, that presented results stimulate development of new studies, dedicated to the influence of water to human health and wellbeing.

Ling, Gilbert N. Life at the cell and below-cell level: "The hidden history of a fundamental revolution in biology." New York, NY, USA: Pacific Press, 2001.



A surge of progress in both laser spectroscopy experiments, and theoretical dynamics methods has facilitated new, highly detailed studies of water clusters. The geometrical structures and hydrogen-bond tunneling pathways of the water trimer, tetramer, pentamer, and hexamer systems have recently been characterized with global analysis of potential surfaces, diffusion Monte Carlo calculations, and far-infrared laser vibration-rotation tunneling spectroscopy. Results from these and other studies are yielding important insights into the cooperativity effects in hydrogen bonding, aqueous solvation, and hydrogen-bond network rearrangement dynamics, which promise to enhance our understanding of solid and liquid water behavior.


Ludwig, Ralf. "Water: From clusters to the bulk." Angewandte Chemie International Edition 40, no. 10 (2001): 1808-1827.


Water is of fundamental importance for human life and plays an important role in many biological and chemical systems. Although water is the most abundant compound on earth, it is definitely not a simple liquid. It possesses strongly polar hydrogen bonds which are responsible for a striking set of anomalous physical and chemical properties. For more than a century the combined importance and peculiarity of water inspired scientists to construct conceptual models, which in themselves reproduce the observed behavior of the liquid. The exploration of structural and binding properties of small water complexes provides a key for understanding bulk water in its liquid and solid phase and for understanding solvation phenomena. Modern ab initio quantum chemistry methods and high‐resolution spectroscopy methods have been extremely successful in describing such structures. Cluster models for liquid water try to mimic the transition from these clusters to bulk water. The important question is: What cluster properties are required to describe liquid‐phase behavior?


Marchettini, Nadia, Emilio Del Giudice, Vladimir Voeikov, and Enzo Tiezzi. "Water: A medium where dissipative structures are produced by a coherent dynamics." Journal of Theoretical Biology 265, no. 4 (2010): 511-516.



Muller, N. (1988). "Is there a region of highly structured water around a nonpolar solute molecule?" Journal of Solution Chemistry. 17, 661672. 


Ovchinnikova, Kate, and Gerald H. Pollack. "Can water store charge?." Langmuir 25, no. 1 (2009): 542-547.


Previous work from this and other laboratories has demonstrated large pH gradients in water. Established by passing current between immersed electrodes, pH gradients between electrodes were found to disappear slowly, persisting for tens of minutes after the current had been turned off. We find here that these pH gradients reflect a genuine separation of charge: at times well after disconnection of the power supply, current could be drawn through a resistor placed between the charging electrodes or between pairs of electrodes positioned on either side of the midline between original electrodes. In some experiments, it was possible to recover the majority of charge that had been imparted to the water. It appears, then, that water has the capacity to store and release substantial amounts of charge.

Pollack, Gerald H. "The fourth phase of water." Ebner & Sons Publishers, Seattle, Washington (2013).



Pollack, G. H. "Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life; a New Unifying Approach to Cell Function." (Ebner and Sons Publishers, Washington, 2001).


Pollack, Gerald H. "The cell as a biomaterial." Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 13, no. 9 (2002): 811-821.

Pollack, G.H.. (2003). "Sub-cellular basis of biological motion." Biologicheskie Membrany. 20. 5-15. 


The underlying basis of biological motion is poorly understood. Diverse mechanisms have arisen to account for the diverse types of cellular motions. One reason for the absence of a central principle may be an invalid assumption: the cell is consistently treated as an aqueous solution, whereas its character as a gel is broadly acknowledged. The disconnection between fact and theory emerges in part because the behavior of gels has not been well understood, particularly among biologists. Recently, great strides have been made in understanding gel behavior. It has become clear, for example, that a central mechanism in gel function is the phase-transition - a qualitative structural change prompted by a subtle change of environment, not unlike the transition from ice to water. Phase-transitions are capable of doing work. If the cell is a gel, then a logical approach to understanding cell function is to understand gel function - particularly whether some role may be played by the phase transition. Here, we pursue this approach. We first consider the dichotomy of the cell as a gel vs. an aqueous solution. We then set up a gel-based foundation for cell behavior, in which the gels physical chemical features are used to explore how the cell achieves its everyday tasks, particularly the generation of motion. The central issue is whether the phase-transition may be a common denominator of biological motion.


Pollack, Gerald H., Xavier Figueroa, and Qing Zhao. "Molecules, water, and radiant energy: new clues for the origin of life." International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10, no. 4 (2009): 1419-1429.



We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun’s radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water.

Pollack, Gerald H. "Water energy and life: fresh views from the water’s edge." International journal of design & nature and ecodynamics: a transdisciplinary journal relating to nature, science, and the humanities 5, no. 1 (2010): 27.


Recent observations have shown an unexpected feature of water adjacent to hydrophilic surfaces: the presence of wide interfacial zone that excludes solutes. The exclusion zone is charged, while the water beyond is oppositely charged, yielding a battery-like feature. The battery is powered by absorbed radiant energy. Implications of this energetic feature are discussed. It appears that the presence of this ‘exclusion zone’ may play an important role in the behavior of aqueous systems.

Pyatnitsky, L. N., and V. A. Fonkin. "Human consciousness influence on water structure." J Scientif Explor 9 (1995): 89-106.


The ability of human consciousness to change the structure of water is indicated by experiments utilizing light scattering indicatrix recordings. Alterations of scattered light intensity, correlated with an operator's intention, can exceed by factors of 10 to 1000 the statistical variances observed before or after operator interaction. Such effects have been demonstrated by several operators, and appear to be operator-specific, although enhanceable by training.

Radin, Dean, Gail Hayssen, Masaru Emoto, and Takashige Kizu. "Double-blind test of the effects of distant intention on water crystal formation." Explore 2, no. 5 (2006): 408-411.


The hypothesis that water “treated” with intention can affect ice crystals formed from that water was pilot tested under double-blind conditions. A group of approximately 2,000 people in Tokyo focused positive intentions toward water samples located inside an electromagnetically shielded room in California. That group was unaware of similar water samples set aside in a different location as controls. Ice crystals formed from both sets of water samples were blindly identified and photographed by an analyst, and the resulting images were blindly assessed for aesthetic appeal by 100 independent judges. Results indicated that crystals from the treated water were given higher scores for aesthetic appeal than those from the control water (P = .001, one-tailed), lending support to the hypothesis.

Tedeschi, A. "Is the living dynamics able to change the properties of water?." International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics 5, no. 1 (2010): 60-67.



Water is the main component of living matter and is also the main responsible of its self-organizing capabilities. The interaction between water and biomolecules changes in turn the internal structure of water, so that living water has different physical properties than normal water. In the present paper experimental corroboration of this property is provided. Vegetal leaves are triturated and suspended in water; the irritation produced by the cutting induces an intense electromagnetic activity that transforms the structure of water, giving rise to the imprinting of the particular biological process that has occurred. Experimental evidence of the changes of thermodynamic properties of the imprinted water is presented. This property of water could play a role in ecosystem organization.

Thomas, Yolène. "The history of the Memory of Water." Homeopathy 96, no. 3 (2007): 151-157.



‘Homeopathic dilutions’ and ‘Memory of Water’ are two expressions capable of turning a peaceful and intelligent person into a violently irrational one,’ as Michel Schiff points out in the introduction of his book ‘The Memory of Water’. The idea of the memory of water arose in the laboratory of Jacques Benveniste in the late 1980s and 20 years later the debate is still ongoing even though an increasing number of scientists report they have confirmed the basic results. This paper first provides a brief historical overview of the context of the high dilution experiments then moves on to digital biology. One working hypothesis was that molecules can communicate with each other, exchanging information without being in physical contact and that at least some biological functions can be mimicked by certain energetic modes characteristics of a given molecule. These considerations informed exploratory research which led to the speculation that biological signaling might be transmissible by electromagnetic means. Around 1991, the transfer of specific molecular signals to sensitive biological systems was achieved using an amplifier and electromagnetic coils. In 1995, a more sophisticated procedure was established to record, digitize, and replay these signals using a multimedia computer. From a physical and chemical perspective, these experiments pose a riddle, since it is not clear what mechanism can sustain such ‘water memory’ of the exposure to molecular signals. From a biological perspective, the puzzle is what nature of imprinted effect (water structure) can impact biological function. Also, the far-reaching implications of these observations require numerous and repeated experimental tests to rule out overlooked artifacts. Perhaps more important is to have the experiments repeated by other groups and with other models to explore the generality of the effect. In conclusion, we will present some of this emerging independent experimental work.

Voeikov, Vladimir L. "Fundamental role of water in bioenergetics." In Biophotonics and Coherent Systems in Biology, pp. 89-104. Springer, Boston, MA, 2007.


Voeikov, Vladimir. "Reactive oxygen species, water, photons and life." In Biology Forum/Rivista di Biologia, vol. 103. 2010.



Unique properties of oxygen and of the reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) participation are considered, the multiple ways of ROS generation and utilization are discussed in view of evidence for the absolute necessity of ROS for the normal vital activity. Many difficulties in the realization of the real role of ROS in vital activity are caused by the attitude to them only as to chemical substances, while they should be considered in the first place as the major participants of continuous flows of highly non-linear processes in which electron excited species emerge. These processes play a significant role in energy and informational flows in all the living systems. We suggest that the mechanisms of biological action of ROS are determined by the structural patterns (frequency-amplitude patterns of electron excited states generation and their relaxation) of the processes with ROS participation taking place in the aqueous environs. Energy released in such reactions is used as an activation energy for specific biochemical processes, for the continuous "pumping" of the non-equilibrium state of inter- and intracellular structural components, while the structural patterns of ROS reactions determine biochemical and physiological rhythmic modes. Special role of water in all these phenomena is discussed. From a broader perspective the processes with ROS participation emerging in water preceded and were the necessary condition for origination and evolution of organic living forms on Earth.

Voeikov, Vladimir L. "Biological significance of active oxygen-dependent processes in aqueous systems." In Water and the Cell, pp. 285-298. Springer, Dordrecht, 2006.



Water actively participates in bioenergetics and bioregulation. It is essential for purposeful production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and extracellular matrix. Due to specific structuring of water it itself may serve the source of free radicals and initiate reactions with their participation. On the other hand, water structuring provides for its direct oxidation with oxygen. Processes going on in aqueous systems in which ROS participate are the sources of high-grade energy of electronic excitation which is not easily and uselessly dissipated in aqueous milieu of living systems but rather can be accumulated, concentrated, and used as energy of activation for the performance of biochemical reactions. Such processes spontaneously acquire oscillatory character and may serve as pacemakers for biochemical reactions dependent on them. Thus, due to its unique structural-dynamic properties water may serve as a transformer of energy from low density to high density form, may accumulate the former and use it for organization and support of vital activity.

Voeikov, Vladimir L. "Mitogenetic radiation, biophotons and non-linear oxidative processes in aqueous media." In Integrative Biophysics, pp. 331-359. Springer, Dordrecht, 2003.



Mitogenetic radiation (MGR) discovered by A. G. Gurwitsch gave birth to the field of biophotonics that energetically develops now. However, most facts of unique properties of MGR and of processes in which they originate, of surprising discoveries made during several decades of intensive MGR research are practically forgotten. Present-day biophotonics may gain a lot for its further development from discoveries and insights made at that time. In particular, it was discovered that usual enzymatic reactions are followed with MGR, that MGR emission from aqueous solutions of simple amino acids is correlated with spontaneous polypeptide synthesis, that substances possessing specific enzymatic activities may self-reproduce in such solutions. All these processes crucially depend on oxygen (and in some cases on illumination with visible light). An extremely sensitive analytical method – MGR spectral analysis – helped to show that branched chain reactions with the participation of reactive oxygen species and other free radicals serve as energy source for the emergence of high energy mitogenetic photons. All these amazing phenomena are discussed, in particular here in relation to the growing understanding of the important role of reactive oxygen species and their reactions taking place in aqueous milieu for bioenergetics and bioinformatics.

Voeikov, Vladimir L. "Fundamental Role of Water in Bioenergetics" Voeikov VL, Martynyuk VS., eds, Springer, 2007, pp. 89-104."



Water plays the key role in generation, transformation, and utilization of energy for the realization of biological functions. Its direct involvement in hydrolytic processes in which primary “fuels” are produced, in ATP synthesis and energy gain due to ATP hydrolysis is well known, but not appreciated. Recently water became known to be one of the major sources of high-grade energy – energy of electronic excitation (EEE) generated in the reactions in which active oxygen participates. Due to quazi-polymeric properties of interfacial water it may transform low grade into high grade energy. Besides, singlet oxygen may directly oxidize water in structured environment providing for the generation of EEE which may “spark” other energy donating processes. EEE may also be used locally for the performance of different kinds of chemical and physical work; it may accumulate and pool in aqueous systems and migrate within them without dissipation on macroscopic distances. Slow combustion in water and combustion of water is capable to self-organization in space and time expressed in the development of oscillatory-wave regimes of these processes serving as timekeepers of other biochemical processes dependent on them as well as sensitive antennas for external oscillatory signals.


Voeikov, Vladimir L. "The possible role of active oxygen in the memory of water." Homeopathy 96, no. 3 (2007): 196-201.



Phenomena of long-term ‘memory of water’ imply that aqueous systems possessing it remain for a long period after the initial perturbation in an out of equilibrium state without a constant supply of energy from the environment. It is argued here that various initial perturbations initiate development of a set of chain reactions of active oxygen species in water. Energy, in particular high-grade energy of electronic excitation, released in such reactions can support non-equilibrium state of an aqueous system. In principle, such reactions can continue indefinitely due to specific local structuring of water with even minute ‘impurities’ that are always present in it and by continuous supply of oxygen amounts due to water splitting. Specific properties of several real aqueous systems, in particular, homeopathic potencies in which such processes could proceed, are discussed. The role of coherent domains in water in maintenance of active oxygen reactions and in emergence of oscillatory modes in their course is considered.


Widom, Allan, Yogi Srivastava, and Vincenzo Valenzi. "The biophysical basis of water memory." International Journal of Quantum Chemistry (Wiley and Sons), Published on line May 19 (2009).



J Benveniste had observed that highly dilute (and even in the absence of physical molecules) biological agents still triggered relevant biological systems. Some of these experiments were reproduced in three other laboratories. Further work showed that molecular activity in more than fifty biochemical systems and even in bacteria could be induced by electromagnetic signals transferred through water solutes. The sources of the electromagnetic signals were recordings of specific biological activity. These results suggest that electromagnetic transmission of biochemical information can be stored in the electric dipole moments of water in close analogy to the manner in which magnetic moments store information on a computer disk. The electromagnetic transmission would enable in vivo transmissions of the specific information between two functional bio-molecules. In the present work, the physical nature of such biological information storage and retrieval in ordered quantum electromagnetic domains of water will be discussed.


Wuthrich, Kurt, ed. NMR in Structural Biology: "A Collection of Papers " by Kurt Wuthrich. Vol. 5. World Scientific, 1995.

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